The Servant of the Lord

February 12, 2018

wonder-servant.jpg

From our reading in Isaiah and Mark, it is all about the Servant of the Lord. Here are some selected points of discussion.

  • Who wrote Isaiah 40-66? There is little doubt that the prophet wrote the first 39 chapters, but questions abound about the latter half of the book. It details events that happened 150 years after Isaiah’s death, that is, the return of the remnant of God’s people from exile in Babylon. The judgment of God to Judah in the form of Babylonian conquest and captivity that Isaiah had earlier foretold was over. Chapters 40-66 seems to speak in present tense about the exiles return along with the complications connected to that. Since Isaiah was long gone—how could he have written it? Three main theories exist. One, as a prophet, he simply saw the future via divine intervention and wrote about as if he were present in it. Two, using Isaiah’s own notations in 8:16; 29:10-12 & 30:8-9—he sealed up some of his prophecies, which were passed along among his disciples during the subsequent years—which were then later unsealed and used by disciples/scholars/prophets contemporary to the remnant return. Three, someone other than Isaiah living after the period of exile wrote it, making it another work altogether and not really tied to Isaiah at all. To add to this discussion, an almost complete scroll of Isaiah containing all 66 chapters was discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls in Qumran in 1947. This scroll was one thousand years older than any previous Isaiah manuscript, being dated to 125 BCE. It demonstrated at that point at least, Isaiah was considered one book written by one author. Even more significant, the New Testament seems to have few problems attributing the entire book to Isaiah. (Here is but a small sample–Matthew 8:17; 12:18,21; Luke 2:32; Romans 2:34; 10:20; 2 Corinthians 6:7; 1 Peter 2:22.)
  • Who is the Servant of the Lord? Isaiah introduces us to him in chapter 49 and he becomes central to the narrative. God had not forgotten his promise to his people. Throughout captivity and exile a remnant had remained. They were returning (the time period of Ezra and Nehemiah) to their homeland to renew their calling as God’s people—a light to all nations. But stubbornness among them still remained. They claimed God had ignored and given up on them during captivity. Isaiah countered by insisting that he most definitely had not—that the judgment and exile was all a part of God’s plan for something bigger and better to emerge from the Jewish people to bless all nations. This is embodied in the Servant of the Lord, the Messiah, Christ Jesus our Lord. He would be the suffering servant (chapter 53) that would finally accomplish God’s will for his kingdom to be a place for all nations and people. The second half of Isaiah is about hope—hope for all people, for a New Jerusalem and it is only possible because of the Servant of the Lord.
  • Is everything really possible for them who believe? So says Jesus in Mark 9:23. Contextually this flows out of a conversation with the father of a young boy possessed by an evil spirit. Jesus is petitioned to help. The father says to Jesus, “But if you can do anything, take pity on us and help us.” Jesus responds by stating, “If you can?” and then makes the firm affirmation of the place of faith for believers. So, is this a context specific remark only applicable to that situation or does it have a broader scope? Either evil spirits no longer possess us as they did in Christ’s day or we do not recognize them as such. Is this just a statement by Christ in connection to them? If it goes beyond context, then are we limiting the power of God to work within us due to lack of faith? Other texts (Romans 3:20-21 for example) indicate that God is ready to accomplish within us more than we “ask or imagine.” Could it be that we are not asking or imagining enough?
  • Can anyone “not one of us” serve the Lord faithfully? This was the concern of some of Christ’s disciples as recorded in Mark 9:38-41 (this story occurs only in Mark’s gospel). They witnessed someone not from their group exorcising demons in the name of Jesus and “told him to stop, because he was not one of us.” Jesus countered that, explaining that anyone serving in that way was “not against us” but rather “for us.” No other information is provided except in the following discourse Jesus warns about “not causing one of these little ones who believe in me to sin.” This seems to be a direct reference to the man casting out demons and the disciples attempt to stop him. Often we can drift into an exclusive attitude about who can and who cannot effectively and faithfully serve the Lord. If you are one of us—you are in. If you are not among us—you are out. Perhaps this brief story is included in Scripture to cause us to reconsider this kind of thinking and to realize that ultimately God knows who is in and who is not. Obviously, false teachers have existed from the very genesis of the church, but this story reminds us to be careful about making sweeping judgments as to whom God can use in his kingdom.
  • Divorce for “any cause?” Jesus was swept up into a controversial and somewhat convoluted debate over divorce in Mark 10:1-12 (see also Matthew 19:1-12 & Luke 16:18). It centered on different interpretations of Deuteronomy 24:1-4 among the Pharisees. This OT text deals with a man’s right to divorce his wife because of “finding something indecent about her.” Two schools of rabbinical thought had emerged and been codified by the time of Christ around this phrase. One interpretation saw it as pertaining to any woman who had been sexually unfaithful during the time of engagement. If this was proven, the intended husband could divorce her (Joseph with Mary for instance). This was the minority view. The second had morphed this statement to mean basically anything a man found unfavorable about his wife—from bad cooking to a bad hair day. This approach was the widely accepted norm as divorce for “any cause” (Matthew’s account include this language ). To fortify this view the practice of Moses concerning divorce was also mentioned. Interestingly, Jesus does not really answer the question directly. Instead he attributes the action of Moses as a compromise because of stubborn hearts and harkens all the way back to the original concept of marriage from the beginning—one man for one woman for life. By so doing he effectively does answer their question without engaging in their debate over rabbinical teachings. Can a man divorce his wife for any cause? No, he cannot. Instead he needs to honor the original marriage covenant. Later privately he offers a further explanation to his disciples offering marital unfaithfulness as an exemption to the Genesis account. Notable here is that he includes the possibility of a woman being able to divorce a man—something not allowed under Jewish law at that time—and something that unfortunately would be needed as the gospel extended beyond the Jews. Consider Paul’s teaching in 1 Corinthians 7 (which predates the book of Mark) concerning the different marriage situations in Corinth. What if an unbelieving spouse leaves the believing spouse? Paul indicates that the believer—be it a man or woman—“is not bound in such circumstances.” No, a divorce cannot be sought for “any cause,” but there are exemptions. Both Jesus and Paul spoke into the complex situations of their context and complex situations continue to exist in our context as well.

 

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Closing the Gender Gap

October 5, 2017

The Kingdom Revolution #4

You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus, for all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. –Galatians 3:26-28

Women in the Roman World

During much of the first century Roman world, which is the context of the New Testament, women were in no way considered equal to men and were regulated to certain well-defined roles. There were variations within this system due to social standing, wealth and other factors, but for the most part in the Roman culture the woman’s main role was to marry (usually very young), have numerous children (due to the high infant mortality rate), and take care of the home. Women from lower classes quite frequently held jobs outside of the home (in such areas as agriculture, markets,  crafts; as midwives and as wet-nurses, etc.), but were otherwise still very limited within the Roman culture.

Perhaps the best way to frame the existing gender gap is to understand the established Roman family system. Family units—wives, children, slaves—were headed by the most senior male within the family (the paterfamilias). He had all legal rights over his daughters until they were married (again often at an early age and often in an arranged marriage). Girls growing up in this system (among the more elite) would be given an education, but were always under the control of a male. After she married the control shifted to her husband. A proper Roman woman would busy herself with the details of her home, her children, spend her time weaving clothes for the family and taking care of the family needs. Even her name indicated her unequal status to men. It was the common practice that a daughter took her father’s name and feminized it. While legally should could inherit property, she would have to always have a male representing her interests in it. It was truly a heavily male-oriented culture. One writer bluntly states:

Roman women didn’t get equal rights with men. Roman law continued to insist that women could not be emperors, or be in the Roman Senate, or govern a province, or join the army. Men could beat or rape their wives, just as they beat and raped their slaves. A Roman woman could divorce her husband, but generally he kept the children. Women who were Slaves were frequently physically and sexually abused, and often saw their children killed or sold away from them. (From Women in Ancient Rome by K.E. Carr) 

Another historian notes:

A dichotomy existed within the lives of Roman women. They did have some personal freedoms, but they had little chance for individuality or personal choice. They were under the constant supervision of their fathers, male relatives, and husbands, who regularly kissed them on the mouth to find out if they had drunk wine. Drinking wine was strictly forbidden for Roman women and they could be punished by death. In Memorable Deeds and Sayings from the first century AD, Maximus tells us how Egnatius Metellus beat his wife to death for drinking wine. It was believed that wine caused women to have adulterous relationships, which were very common since so many marriages took place for political or economic reasons, not for love or passion. Women found to have committed adultery could be put to death by their fathers or guardians. Women often married men who were much older than themselves. They married whoever they were told to. (from Ancient Roman Women: A Look at their Lives by Moya K. Mason)

These two quotes, then demonstrate how, in general, women were viewed and treated in Paul’s context when he wrote the Galatian letter. To be fair there were exceptions to this (women with three children and freedwomen with four children had expanded legal rights for instance) and at the close of the first century a notable change within the empire occurred granting women heretofore unprecedented rights (coincidence?)

All One in Christ Jesus

So to those who first heard these words of Paul, they had to sound quite radical and revolutionary. Nowhere else within that context would they had been spoken. Religiously, women within Rome did participate and occasionally even lead certain rites and rituals (Vestal Virgins for instance—serving the Roman goddess, Vesta), but in no way were they considered equal with men. Jewish women, in general, enjoyed a slightly more elevated position within their culture, but again, theirs was also a male-dominated existence. The idea then that there is neither male nor female was then quite shocking!

Meaning and Practice

Obviously Paul was not suggesting some type of absence or denial of gender or gender roles. Just as with the other relationships he addresses in our Galatian text, the idea put forth is that in the kingdom everyone is elevated equally through Christ and by the grace of God. Male and female, therefore, in God’s kingdom all have equal status; equal access to the blessings and rewards of the kingdom; they are equally valued and needed within the kingdom; and they should be treated with mutual respect and honor. In God’s kingdom women are in no way inferior to men and should not be treated as such. Jesus died to make it so.

This high value of women is noted throughout the New Testament and within the church. Note Paul’s specific mention of many women within the churches in his letters (in Romans 16 for instance). This kind of recognition and praise was most uncommon.

Gifted women are named throughout the New Testament (Phoebe, who was a deaconess—Romans 16:1-2; Phillip’s prophetic daughters—Acts 21:9; Dorcas the dressmaker—Acts 9:36-43; Priscilla, co-teacher of the gospel with her husband—Acts 18; Eunice and Lois, Timothy’s mother and grandmother—2 Timothy 1:5). And while men were given the overall headship and spiritual leadership within the home and the church (Ephesians 5:22-23; 1 Corinthians 11:3), along with that is a rather revolutionary idea that within the home there is a mutual submission also practiced (Ephesians 5:21); that men are to love their wives just as Christ loves the church (Ephesians 5:25) and as he loves himself, showing her respect (Ephesians 5:33). Beyond the home, Paul also indicates that women used their giftedness within the church—women praying and prophesying within the assembly (1 Corinthians 11:2-16).

As we process this teaching—at a point and place in which women have historically unprecedented rights and equality—they likely do not resonate as strongly as they did within the first century. Women then hearing a message of equality; of respectful treatment; of a place that valued her gifts; had to wonder if it were true. For men hearing the message it was nothing short of scandal. But it was a message flowing directly out of the grace, love and mercy of God; a message of how different his kingdom was from any other; a message, again, that eventually changed an empire.

For anyone paying attention though, it is not that shocking. Look no further than Christ’s incredible treatment and acceptance of women within his ministry. He truly is the great equalizer. Only through him could this happen—neither male nor female. Remember the overarching goal is unity in him. He bridges the gap between slave and free; he overcomes the hostility between Jew and Greek. He closes the gender gap. In his kingdom all are welcome and all are equal. Everyone has a place. Everyone has a gift. Everyone is needed. It is the revolution of the kingdom—a revolution still ongoing.

Let’s just be sure we are among the revolutionaries in advancing the kingdom in every way and all of the blessings within it available to everyone.


Sex and Food

December 2, 2014

The little first generation church in the ancient city of Ephesus was (to borrow a current not-so-ancient phrase) a “hot mess.” Unhealthy leadership created the situation. They were promoting “controversies rather than God’s work” according to the Apostle Paul. He was well acquainted with this church and her leaders (see Acts 19-20) and sent his “son in the faith,” Timothy, there in an attempt to repair the damage brought on by those who “have wandered away” and “turned to meaningless talk.” We can read all about it in 1 & 2 Timothy.

Part of the mess these “certain men” created included unhealthy ideas about and manipulative use of two of our most human desires–sex and food. “They forbid people to marry and order them to abstain from certain foods” is exactly how Paul stated it (1 Timothy 4:3). Their motive in doing this–as detailed in 1 Timothy–is likely not surprising. They sought power, control and… money (which brings power and control). What might be surprising is that they used unhealthy approaches to sex and food to gain it.

Or maybe not.

Upon further review there seems to be quite the pattern within just the New Testament alone of sex and food being used to create other messes in both the Jewish and Christian communities. Just run these (not exhaustive) references: Matthew 12:1-2; 19:3; Acts 6:1; Romans 14:2-3; 6; 1 Corinthians 5; 6:12-13; 18-20; 7:1-40; 8:1-13; 10:23-33; 11;17-33; Ephesians 5:31; Colossians 2:16;21-23; 2 Peter 2:13-14; 18 & Jude 4.

While each of these contexts certainly are different they do illustrate how sex and food have repeatedly been the targets of folks (as we say in the south) “up to no good.”

Sex and food. Both are powerful human desires. Both were created by God as healthy and good–blessings for us to enjoy. Yet both remain targets of corrupting influences that appeal “to the lustful desires of sinful human nature” (2 Peter 2:18) rather than to God’s wonderful design for these gifts. According to God:

  • Sex is to be fully enjoyed and explored within the context of marriage (Hebrews 13:4). It is how a man and woman become “one flesh” in the sight of the Lord (Matthew 19:4-6).
  • And food? All food is to be viewed as a gift from God. We are to accept it with thanksgiving (1 Timothy 4:3-5; 1 Corinthians 10:25-26).

If you did run those earlier scripture references then you already know this was not the sex and food message many heard in those early churches. In somewhat of an oversimplification-both were either overly restricted or overly indulged. Neither approach helped anyone–except those “certain men” using them for their own agendas. They prospered in the messes they created, but the churches did not. (If you think Paul had nothing for them–check out what the Apostle Peter thought in 2 Peter 2. Wow.)

Sex and food? How is that going for us now? Anyone still out there trying to control and direct our attitudes and actions toward them? Do they continue to be used to further ungodly agendas? What kind of messy consequences continue as a result?  Anyone profiting from these consequences? And just what kind of reception does God’s message on these two get?

Sex and food. Most of us are not going without them and our desire for both can lead us to enjoy them in God’s healthy context or consume them in our own lusts.

I guess it all depends upon what sex and food message we are hearing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Marriage Ministry Mission in Vilnius

April 26, 2011

Richard and Jeanna Lynn May recently completed a two-week marriage ministry mission trip to Vilnius, Lithuania through What God Has Joined ministry. From all reports it was an incredible success. Both of the Vilnius evangelists, Ilia Amosov and Juozas Puodziukaitis rave about their work and the lasting positive affects on everyone who attended the seminars and personal coaching sessions. Here is what Richard and Jeanna Lynn said about the trip:

We returned from our two week trip to Vilnius Lithuania on April 17.  The mission was a super success!  We offered 12 hours of seminar and coached between 50-60 hours.  The ministers of VKB and their families were warm and appreciative.  We continue to hear exciting news and positive reports regarding the Marriage Mission.  We have written a full report of our trip and will send it out soon and post it on the website. 

We thank God for Richard and Jeanna Lynn! Their work was an answer to many prayers and hopefully the beginning of a lasting ministry presence in this country for years to come!

* For more pics please click here and for a complete report on their mission trip click here.


FYI

March 7, 2011

All kinds of compelling mission, ministries and other kingdom work happening right now. Here are a few links,  events and thoughts you might be interested in.

I’ll start with news about the Lithuanian mission ministry (Thanks to my friends at the Christian Chronicle for giving us a shout out in the latest issue).

  • The little kids session of Lithuania Christian Camp will return, God willing, in the summer of 2011! Last year this ministry was reduced to just one session but because of the generosity of many the younger session (for kids 8-12) will return on June 27-July 3. If you are interested in learning more about the camp go here or here. For more about the little kids session go here, here and here.
  • Speaking of Lithuania missions- We are excited about an upcoming April trip which God has made possible for Richard and Jeanna Lynn May. Through their marriage ministry- What God Has Joined– they will be blessing couples and families in Vilnius and beyond by offering marriage coaching for couples and seminars for everyone.  This is a greatly needed ministry focus there. Please pray for them.

Other news:

  • Our friends at Harding University in Searcy, Arkansas have been dealing with some unwanted publicity from hostile media sources as a result of decisions made about a web zine published by current and former gay students.  It seems to me that the university acted in a manner consistent to its published student handbook and explained  themselves accordingly. Some of the reports I read from various media sources were simply unfair in comparing HU to Westboro Baptist Church. 
  • The USA Today reports that a larger percentage of teens and young adults are virgins than in the past.  This- from a Christian ethic perspective- is a good trend.
  • I recently discovered a great blog for preachers and church leaders.  It is by Dan Bouchelle- Confessions of a Former Preacher. Go check it out sometime.
  • I am looking forward to soon going and participating in Elderlink in Atlanta.
  • Another great annual event among Churches of Christ is the Tulsa Workshop. You can check out its schedule here.

Have a great week serving our amazing God!


The Blessing of Blogging

May 3, 2010

The blogosphere is a wonderful sharing and dialoguing tool. I know I have been blessed through blogging to meet and get to know people who otherwise I would not.

I always greatly appreciate those who stop by here, read and occasionally comment and those who also respond through email and Facebook. It is good to know that this blog stimulates a little kingdom thinking and discussion.  So thanks for your visits! It does mean a lot.

Now just some random bullet points:

  • The “Beautiful Feet” blog which profiles the good work of preachers among us is updated for the week. Stop in and meet Darin Hamm.
  • I am an avid Fantasy Baseball fan. My two teams are not doing so well thus far. Is it okay to pray for them? lol
  • Friends Richard and JennaLynn May are expanding their What God Has Joined Together marriage ministry. This couple would be a wonderful resource for your church.
  • Several of us guys at Gateway just concluded a “Wild at Heart” retreat at an awesome facility in the middle of two lakes and 550 acres. It was an incredible time! There is just something rejuvenating to run around and act like boys again.
  • Please be in prayer for the many so affected by the recent severe weather. Whenever such weather happens I again hear the cries of “the world is ending” and “it is all because of global warming.” Is it just me or are both of these an attempt by man to play God?

Have a great first full week of May!


Re-educating America

January 14, 2009

This is a follow-up post to the previous one. Someone get me some butter, because I am on a roll! lol (groan)

I just got to thinking about how incredibly successful Satan has been in seducing us. Basically he has accomplished an almost complete re-education of America. Think about it:

  • Those opposed to abortion are now viewed as cruel, oppressive to women’s rights, mean, radical and right-wing nut-jobs instead of people committed to the noble pursuit of protecting unborn life.
  • Anyone speaking an alternative voice about same-sex marriages and the homosexual lifestyle is now considered racist, hate-filled,  intolerant, ignorant, and bigoted instead of someone who values and seeks to uphold the traditional view of marriage.
  • If you speak out against pre-marital or even extra-marital sex you are viewed as prudish, old-fashioned, oppressive, and disconnected to reality instead of a person voicing concern over all of the many hurtful consequences of such life-style choices and offering a more meaningful and fulfilling alternative.
  • If you are a believer in the Christian God and his Bible you are seen as an unlearned, intolerant, out-of-touch, back-woods hick instead of someone who has made a thorough, life-changing, informed choice to believe in a God of love.

I am reminded of what God said through Isaiah (5:20):

Woe to those who call evil good and good evil, who put darkness for light and light for darkness, who put bitter for sweet and sweet for bitter.