God and Government #4

October 27, 2016

Here is the last lesson in the series. I enjoyed teaching this at Levy over the last month. 

Our last text to consider in this study is 1 Peter 2:13-17. This is an interesting text and context out of an interesting letter. Peter’s audience was not a single church. Instead he addressed his letter to…

God’s elect, strangers in the world, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia. (1 Peter 1:10)

As addressed, the original recipients of this letter were Christians living in various parts of the Roman Empire. The purpose of the writing was to offer encouragement and fortification for the trials they all faced, which Peter acknowledged first in 1:6. That Peter would address them as “strangers” set the agenda for the letter. He would pick up this idea again in 2:11-12 (immediately before the text of our study). Overall his teaching focused on their calling as God’s chosen people. This calling led to an understanding that the world offered no lasting home. Here Christians are just “aliens and strangers”. Peter would detail what that looked like lived out within a hostile world. One point of emphasis within this involved living in such a way to counter criticism. One way to do that would be to submit to governing authorities.

THE TEXT

Submission to all governing authorities—specifically to kings and governors—is called upon “for the Lord’s sake.” This qualifier is significant. Remember the type of government under which these Christians lived. It was not at all favorable to Christian faith. It was often oppressive, unjust and cruel. Why submit to such an immoral governmental system? That is what God asks of his people. He asks because even such evil governments are used to “punish those who do wrong and commend those who do right.” He asks because it is his will for his people—these strangers—to demonstrate their heavenly citizenship by “doing good” everywhere they happened to live and not to become involved in civil disobedience. Compare this text to both Romans 13:1-7 and 1 Timothy 2:1-5 and there is remarkable consistency of message.

Each of these contexts (and in ours) it is taught that Christians becoming involved in rebellion against those in governmental authority would be counterproductive to the spread of the gospel of Christ. Peter further explains why it is vital for Christians to submit to their rulers—to counter criticism or as he states, “silence the ignorant talk of foolish men.” Christians were subjects of incredible rumors and misinformation—blamed for incidents not their doing. So it was crucial for Christians to not add any fuel to the false flames. “Peaceful and quiet” lives were the apostle’s mandates.

This could be accomplished four ways:

  • Showing proper respect to everyone
  • Loving each other—the brotherhood of believers
  • Fearing God
  • Honoring the king

But what if everyone was not worthy of respect? Even in the church? What if the king was corrupt? It does not matter. This approach is coming out of a respect first of God and his will. This is all done first “for the Lord’s sake.” It is a kingdom first perspective, which takes maturity to understand and practice. Just consider the next section of teaching—to Christian slaves. They were instructed to submit, obey and respect their masters—even the “harsh” ones. Why? Because it was “commendable before God.” Why? Because “to this you were called.”

It is the same principle. Christians are not to rebel but to respect and submit to those in authority even if that authority is unjust—because in so doing the principles and message of God’s kingdom are furthered. It is exactly why Christ endured the insults and sufferings without retaliation. We benefit from his submission. Others will benefit from ours. Ultimately the kingdom of God will triumph. We have to think more broadly than just the here and now. So we honor the king (even if he is Nero), we pray for him, we do our best to live at peace with everyone by living out the kingdom values as aliens and strangers in our world. This is God’s calling and will for us.

21st CENTURY APPLICATION

So how does all of this connect to us living in a democratic form of government in the 21st century USA? To answer this—again we must remember that the NT texts were not written specifically to us or to directly answer our questions. Understanding that and doing our best to apply the teachings of these texts to our situation, here are some consistent principles to consider:

  • Do our best—regardless of the type of government under which we live to submit and live at peace. Do not engage in civil disobedience or unrest. Our kingdom citizenship supersedes any earthly citizenship and living that out is paramount.
  • Pay our taxes and our debts. Give no one the chance to slander Christ in this regard.
  • If forced obey God rather than man—just like the apostles in Acts 5:29. But remember this still does not give permission to engage in anarchy. Persecuted Christians in the first century died not fighting but praising. Eventually their example won the world.
  • We are called to “honor the king” with no qualifications—even if we do not like his politics.
  • Christians can participate in the governmental process and use their rights of citizenship in peaceful and lawful ways (as Paul did—Acts 22-29) and in ways lawfully beneficial to the spread of the kingdom. Christians should not however partner with politics in any unequal way (2 Corinthians 6:14) nor should we expect the government to be “about the Father’s business.”
  • The latter is our call and that is why the NT so emphasizes living as strangers and aliens; living peaceful lives that are in submission to those who govern us. It not through ballots or bullets that the kingdom of God will spread. It is through quiet and determined faith lived out—consistently upholding the values of God’s kingdom.

God’s call is unchanged regardless of the type of governmental system under which we live. Live first the kingdom of God. Be the best citizen possible in demonstrating what it means to be first a citizen of heaven.

 


FIVE PREACHER FAILS

October 26, 2016

I am intimately familiar with preacher fails. I have lived through a host of my own. Here are five common ones.

  • Lack of discipline. Usually the church world allows quite a bit of daily freedom for preachers to be about their ministry. This freedom can be easily taken advantage of—preachers staying at home and away—not being fully engaged in productive ministry. We preachers already put up with the “you only work three hours a week” barbs. Let’s not allow laziness and lack of discipline to give that any credence. Instead let’s fully “carry out the ministry God has given” us (2 Timothy 4:5 NLT).
  • Inattention to study. Lack of discipline can also lead to sloppy study habits, which in turn damages our ability to effectively speak truth in love. Don’t take shortcuts on sermon preparation. We should put the proper study time in—so that we can be both confident in our presentation and content; that we are in fact handling correctly the Word of God.
  • Inability to listen. I once was convinced that I pretty much had all of the answers and I was eager to share them! Failure on my part to appreciate and to listen to other’s council, to hear proper constructive criticism, to simply learn from wiser and more experienced people hurt my ministry at times. Let’s be quick to hear and slow to speak!
  • Complaining. Everyone needs a place to vent on occasion—the same is true for preachers, but be very careful not to be seen as a whiner or complainer. This can undermine ministry. I have participated in and heard my fair share of elder roasts, how-terrible-my-church-is conversations, and complaints about everything from salaries to worship style. If things need improving usually complaining or whining is not the catalyst to make it happen. Instead let’s try to do all things without complaining and grumbling (Philippians 2:14).
  • People Pleasing. We all desire affirmation—preachers are no exception. And as preachers we certainly want to “become all things to all people so that by all possible means I may save some” (1 Corinthians 9:22), but not to the point of compromising personal or biblical integrity. Ultimately we will give account of our life and ministry to God. We simply cannot allow a desire to please people set the agenda for our work. It can be harmful to us, to our families and to our ministry. There is a balance here that we all must find.

Preaching is one of the most noble and needed callings! Let’s do it with a passion for excellence. I praise God for good preachers!


Numbers

October 24, 2016

numeros

I offer a confession–as a preacher I do think frequently about numbers. Each week as I see Sunday class and worship attendance numbers I usually either will praise God at the healthy numbers or wonder where everyone was–if the numbers are low. I can’t seem to help it.

More than once in conversations about such numbers I have been gently reprimanded–told that perhaps I think too much about it. Maybe so. But numbers do represent souls and are a way to consistently measure the health and growth of a church body.

Throughout history God has put an emphasis on numbers as a measuring tool. Luke was not shy about including the number of conversions in the book of Acts. Of course, if the focus is on numbers-for-numbers-sake for self-glorification, then that is a problem. King David realized this the hard way (see 1 Chronicles 21).

For all of my preaching ministry I have always desired for numbers to increase because I have always desired the church to grow. Increasing numbers to me represent the kingdom of God expanding, more people coming to the Lord, and more people actively involved in worshipping and serving him. I praise God when I see the church grow and I thank him for it! I know it is about more than just numbers (has to be!), but numbers nonetheless do reflect the growth.

When numbers decrease it has always alarmed me. It disappoints and concerns. Often I take it personally (this is irrational I know, but I think it is a common preacher problem) and wonder what I have done to cause the dwindling numbers.

God has given me the privilege to preach in small, medium and larger churches. In all of them I prayed over their numbers. In all I wanted and want more people to come to Christ and faithfully participate in his church. It is not for bragging rights or my glory, but for God’s. And it is for the sake of souls. I want more people enjoying the hope I have in Christ.

So I suppose I will continue on wrestling with the numbers–trying to find the right balance and attitude. I realize that God knows who is his and has a much bigger count going on than I can imagine (1 Kings 19:18).

But for now–if you were in worship Sunday, I rejoice that you were. If not, you were greatly missed you. You do count!


God and Government #3

October 20, 2016

Here is the third lesson. I will post the last one next week. Thanks for the feedback so far! 

Our study takes us next to Ephesus and the text of 1 Timothy 2:1-4. Included here is a snippet from Paul to Timothy—instructions for him to pass along to the Ephesian church:

I urge, then, first of all, that petitions, prayers, intercession and thanksgiving be made for all people—for kings and all those in authority, that we may live peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness. This is good, and pleases God our Savior, who wants all people to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth. 

As we continue to allow Scripture to inform us and shape our thinking/relationship with those who govern us, these words can further our understanding.

Ephesus

It is not unexpected to find Paul addressing this topic in the Ephesian context. Externally this was a church born (so-to-speak) out of a riot (Acts 19:23-41). Civil unrest had accompanied this church planting—so the idea that they would need clear instructions about not participating in such, but rather in praying for those in authority is not surprising. Further in unpacking the internal situation of the church in Ephesus—it was in turmoil due to false teaching (likely among leadership/elders) creating strife among its members, particularly young widows. A quick look at the verses following our immediate context demonstrate the situation—men needing to direct their hands toward God in prayer and not toward each other in anger and disputing. Women needing to act in accordance to God’s will in demeanor and in worship practice. In the larger picture, those in this church had issues with God-ordained authority. They were not living peaceful lives. For this to spill over and into their community (especially after already being connected to a riot) would not accomplish God’s will. So Paul urges a prayerful stance be taken toward all people, but specifically for kings and those who govern in order to live peacefully and quietly in their community. Note the connection here—peaceful lives could result from praying for/honoring those who govern. Becoming involved in civil unrest most certainly would not. One Bible commentator wrote:

“For kings and all who are in authority” The Bible does not teach the divine right of kings, but it does teach the divine will for organized government (cf. Rom. 13:1,2). The theological issue is not whether we agree with our government or whether our government is fair. Believers must pray for governmental officials because they are in God’s will in a fallen world. Believers know from Rom.13:1,2 that all authority is given by God, therefore, as followers of Christ we respect it. This statement is all the more powerful when you realize Paul is asking believers to pray for governmental leaders like Nero! (Bob Utley from Bible.org)

This was the challenge for the Ephesian Christian, but it also remains a challenge for us as well. We may not always agree with those who govern us. We may not have supported them politically. But we have been instructed to pray for them and to not engage in any civil unrest, but instead strive to live peaceful and quiet lives.

This is What Pleases God

Just in case we question this teaching, Paul clearly informs that this approach to those who govern us is “good” and is what “pleases God.” Again, this should not be unexpected. It is consistent with the other New Testament teaching on this topic (Romans 13:1-7; 1 Peter 2:13-17) and is exactly the approach Jesus, himself, adopted.

In using the terms “peaceful and quiet” Paul emphasized the importance of both being free from external strife and from inner turmoil. Christians must demonstrate their faith by calm living, which can be quite challenging in times of crisis and tension, but as in Ephesus—is so crucial to pointing people toward the kingdom of God and the hope it offers. Instead of turmoil our focus should be on godliness and holiness.

Why this is good and so pleasing to God is revealed in the text—God is eager for all men to be saved! This salvation comes only through Jesus. Quiet and peaceful lives; those free of the turmoil and tension of the world; those focused on the values of the kingdom instead of the vices of the world are reflective of him and will draw people to him. Conversely, lives full of unrest, engaged in disputing behavior, and demonstrating anything but peace cannot lift up Jesus.

Fairly straightforward message here—Christians are to be engaged in the kingdom business of seeking and saving the lost. Becoming involved in the kinds of disputes that arise out of political strife (or church strife for that matter) will hinder this pursuit. So, pray for those who govern and do your best to live quietly and peacefully while seeking first the kingdom of God. This is what is good and pleases God. Coming to this knowledge of truth releases strife—for everyone!

A second-generation restoration leader among churches of Christ, David Lipscomb, had very strong opinions concerning the Christian’s relationship with government. He was an influential editor of The Gospel Advocate during the early 20th century. He wrote a book entitled Civil Government. Here is an excerpt:

The principles in the Sermon on the Mount are diverse from and antagonistic to the principles that have obtained and must ever obtain in all human governments. No human government can possibly be maintained and conducted on these principles laid down for the government of Christ’s subjects in his kingdom. The spirit that prompts the practice of the principles is opposed to the spirit needful for the maintenance of human governments. The two spirits cannot dwell in the same heart, nor the same temple, or institution. A man cannot be gentle, forgiving, doing good for evil, turning the other cheek when one is smitten, praying ‘for them that despitefully use and persecute’ him, and at the same time execute wrath and vengeance on the evil-doer, as the human government is ordained to do, and as it must do to sustain its authority and maintain its existence.

While we may or may not agree with him—I borrow his words to highlight that the purpose of God’s kingdom and the purpose of governments rarely intersect. In this political season—let’s more than ever depend upon and trust in God, quietly going about pursuing his will, disengaging from the anger/confusion swirling around the election, while praying for those who govern us. It is what pleases God and will accomplish more good in the end. This we can learn from Ephesus.


Preacher-to-Preacher: Do’s & Don’ts

October 19, 2016

From one preacher to another I gently offer this advice for building stronger relationships within your church and with other preachers.

  • Don’t go all robo-preacher. A while back I was a guest at a church. I was acquainted with the preacher, but had not talked with him recently. So I asked the “how are you” question—genuinely wanting to know how he personally was doing. I got back what I call the “robo-preacher” answer. His church was doing incredible and was growing. They had recently added more leadership and renovated their facility. He was in more demand than ever as a guest speaker at other churches and conferences. God was good! Well, okay. Glad to hear it, but that was not the question I asked. Being a preacher I recognize the tendency we have to attach our value to the good things God is doing through our ministry and those around us, but perhaps this information does not always need to be in the foreground and we need to engage others in a different way. Opportunities to share good news about our ministry will happen.
  • Don’t start posturing. In one city as a new preacher I arrived late (had to find the place) at a graveside funeral service. It was raining. As I made my way to join the crowd a man kindly shared his umbrella with me. After introductions I discovered he was a fellow-preacher in town but at a church that I soon found out that was suspicious of mine. His entire demeanor changed and he began to posture over certain biblical theological positions. Later when encountering this brother, he would barely acknowledge me. I have never understood this. Even if we disagree why this treatment? Wouldn’t it be healthier and more productive to engage each other as brothers and perhaps even enjoy open dialogue about different viewpoints?
  • Do Reply. Maybe this just happens to me (or maybe all of this just happens to me—I could be the common denominator creating all of these situations! LOL) but often when I email and/or call other preachers I never get any reply. Nothing. Not even a “no thank you—not interested.” It is puzzling. I know everyone is busy, but try to reply. It is the gracious thing to do. Speaking of…
  • Do be gracious—to all and specifically toward other preachers. We are a brotherhood within one, you know. All preachers are not gifted the same. We all have made our mistakes (The reason I can write this post is because I recognize myself in it). Let’s be kind to each other even if and especially if—I go all robo-preacher on you or start posturing or whatever. Let’s give each other the benefit of the doubt, encourage one another, and help each other grow in the gift of preaching. It is a gift God values highly.

I love the preaching life even with all of the insecurities and bumps along the way. The rewards far outweigh those temporary challenges. I also appreciate the work of my brothers in the pulpit. Let’s always strive to learn and grow as preachers and always try to be encouragers of each other to preach the Word!


God and Government #2

October 18, 2016

Here is the second lesson in this series. 

The first major text dealing with Christian’s relationship with the government under which they live is found in Romans 13:1-7.

To fully process this text we must first firmly root it in its original context. The target audience for this teaching was Christians—both Jew and Greek—living in first century Rome, the capital of the vast Roman Empire. An empire by definition is “an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority, formerly especially an emperor or empress.” It is important to the text to grasp the type of government under which they lived. It was not a representative form of government in any way. Those who were citizens (like Paul) did have some rights and civil liberties (such as appealing directly to Caesar to ultimately arbitrate legal matters—Acts 22-28), but it was not democracy. So we first must try to hear and process Romans 13:1-7 through their ears, lives and experiences.

One contextual situation that no doubt formed—at least in part—the occasion for this teaching concerned the civil disobedience rampant among parts of the Jewish community. This had earlier created the banishment of the Jewish population of Rome under Emperor Claudius in 49 A.D. (in which Apulia and Priscilla were caught up- Acts 18:1-2. It also was the background for much of the Jew/Greek problem within the church in Rome that prompted Paul to write the letter). Knowing this and the damage it caused the Jews, Paul realized that this type of rebellion against established government would be counterproductive to spreading the gospel and to the reputation of Christians within that community. He did not want the church to get caught up in such civil unrest.

From an immediate contextual perspective, this body of teaching seems to flow from the previous teaching in chapter twelve concerning blessing those who persecute, repaying good for evil, not seeking revenge, and doing everything possible to live at peace with everyone. This divine advice mirrors the teaching of Christ- who did not embrace the radical agenda of the Jewish Zealots of his day, but chose rather to be obedient to the governing powers (even though they were unjust and killed him).

The ultimate goal Paul was seeking in this section of teaching was to urge the church in Rome not to engage in any type of civil disobedience that would bring undue attention to the church and hinder their ability to spread the gospel of Christ. Instead they were to submit to their civic governmental context and work within it as good citizens (as he himself was doing) to allow every opportunity for the gospel to be spread and influence their community.

TEXTUAL POINTS

From the text we learn:

  • Paul presents a positive picture of government. It is to be seen as established by God for the purposes of punishing wrongdoers and as such it serves God’s purposes.
  • Rebelling against the God-ordained government equals rebelling against God and brings about a judgment.
  • “Everyone” is to submit to the governmental powers and not be in rebellion against them. Considering their context this was wise advice because Rome could and did act swiftly to eradicate rebellious and subversive activity (as they did against the Jewish community in Jerusalem in 70 A.D.) The Christian’s responsibility within their governmental context is to “do what is right” – not just for fear of punishment but because it is the right thing to do (“conscience”- vs. 5)
  • Doing what is right includes paying the various taxes required by government and paying your debts.

Coupled with the other NT texts previously mentioned we see a consistent ethic put forth. Jesus agrees that taxes should be paid (Matthew 22:21). The Romans teaching agrees with Paul’s words to Timothy concerning living a quiet and respectful life within a community (1 Timothy 2:1-4). And Peter echoes the idea of respect and submission to the king and those in governmental authority- as well as emphasizing that in doing so it would best present the gospel message and silence critics (1 Peter 2:13-17).

To really grasp the impact of the Roman text (and the others) is to understand that Christianity was this fledgling movement operating among misunderstandings, suspicion, and opposition in the cities where it had taken root. On one hand it was opposed by most of the Jewish establishment (which often spread salacious rumors about the church) and was viewed by many Roman authorities as simply a splinter sect of the troublesome Jewish community- and therefore untrustworthy and suspicious. So, this teaching was crucial to establishing that Christians were not the threat to the empire so perceived. The call was to be good citizens, live at peace, and conform as completely as possible (sometimes- according to the demands of the ruling powers- complete conformity was impossible- Acts 5:29) to governmental powers so as to give the gospel every opportunity to take root and flourish. This indeed is one major way they could live out the transformation to which they were called (Romans 12:1-2). Such a lifestyle would differentiate Christians from others (especially the Jews who were constantly a problem for Rome).

LIVING OUT THE TEXT TODAY

Reading the text through 21st century filters leaves us with many questions. What if a governmental system is not just? Should we live peacefully within a form of government that oppresses and promotes evil? If Christians fall under persecution what should be our response? Is it okay to participate in activities designed to overthrow evil governments? Can we participate in peaceful protest? Should we become involved in the governmental process?

To address this- we first must remember that the Roman texts (and others) were not written specifically to answer these questions. They were context specific. (In fact, it was only a few years after Paul wrote this that Roman Christians faced horrific persecution under Nero and persecution was at times and in places- harsh for Christians until Constantine).  So just what does this text have to say about the above questions? These are not easy questions to answer but ones we will consider/pursue/answer through this study.


God and Government #1

October 17, 2016

Currently at Levy I am teaching a four-part class series on God and Government. Below is the first study. I plan to post them all–to try and offer a kingdom perspective during this rather divisive and angry election cycle. 

As we enter into this study it is imperative for perspective for it to be founded in and informed by the clear scriptural teaching of “seeking first the kingdom of God” (Matthew 6:33). Our primary directive under any form of government is to honor first our heavenly citizenship (Philippians 3:20). Recall after the events that erupted in Gethsemane (John 18:36), Jesus identified his kingdom as being “not of this world” but “from another place.” This—not any earthly kingdom/nation/government is the kingdom we seek first—it’s values, directives, boundaries, principles and purpose—the consequence of such will always lead us to be “aliens and sojourners” (1 Peter 2:11) in whatever nation we live under, whatever the form of government that exists. This understanding provided the first Christians a vastly different worldview, which then enabled them to turn their world upside down by living out and teaching these values while also living quiet and peaceful lives under the oppressive, non-representative, rights-limiting Roman rule. Ultimately they totally transformed this government without casting a single vote or creating any violent revolution.

In this study we will examine the New Testament texts that shaped their thinking and guided their actions as they lived out the kingdom first principles in their nations under their government—Romans 13:1-7; 1 Timothy 2:1-3; & 1 Peter 2:13-17.

Five Things the Bible Teaches about Governments

Before considering those specific texts, it is important to consider the broader Bible teaching about God and governments. God has always been out and about in our world—working with and through peoples, nations, and governments to accomplish his will. He has done so all throughout history and it would be a mistake to think that he does not continue to do so. This remains part of the mystery of God (Isaiah 55:8), but we should expect no less.

From a survey of biblical texts here are five things we can learn from the Bible about God and governments.

  • No form of government/nation will ever reflect completely the ideal of God’s justice and righteousness. We can learn a great deal about God and governments through the relationship of God and Israel—his chosen people. Israel was meant to be a light unto all the nations (Isaiah 49:6). The government God set up within the Hebrew nation was designed to reflect his justice and righteousness (Deuteronomy 16:18-20; 27:19; Proverbs 8:15; 21:3; Amos 5:24), but they failed, as has every subsequent nation and form of government. It is all a result of our broken, fallen world. In fact, corrupt forms of governments/nations not seriously attempting to uphold God’s justice and righteousness have been the rule, not the exception. Israel/Judah—the very nations of God—failed to consistently produce kings and leaders who honored God. Is it then a surprise to see corrupt governments now? What are our expectations today?
  • However, God can use nations/governments to demonstrate his justice—even evil governments (Jeremiah 25:8-9; Acts 4:27-28; Romans 13:4; 1 Peter 2:14). Scripture clearly teaches that God has ordained rulers/nations/governments to be his instruments of justice—even though they often do not totally reflect completely his ideal of justice. God uses what and whom he can to bring about his will in our fallen world. There is something bigger afoot than the here and now.
  • Therefore, God remains in control of the nations and governments. He puts governments and powers in place—Daniel 2:20-21; Psalm 22:28; Proverbs 8:15; John 19:11; Romans 13:1.
  • One day all human governments will end and Christ will reign. Isaiah prophecies: For unto us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government there will be no end. He will reign on David’s throne and over his kingdom, establishing it and upholding it with justice and righteousness from that time on and forever (9:6-7; see also Daniel 2:44; Colossians 2:15; Revelation 19:11, 15-16). This is the bigger picture. This is the kingdom to seek first. This is God’s end game—and everything he does seen and unseen among the nations/governments is all about accomplishing this for as many people as possible (2 Peter 3:9).
  • Meanwhile as we wait, we are to pray for, honor and submit to those who govern us—Mark 12:17; Romans 13:1-4; 1 Timothy 2:1-2; 1 Peter 2:13-17. What this looks like and what is involved in this—first for those within the New Testament context of these verses and second for us now living in 21st century USA—will be the focus of this study.

Hopefully this study will help us gain a better kingdom perspective and instead of fretting over politics, our nation and politics—praise the God over it all!

Come let us sing for joy to the Lord; let us shout aloud to the Rock of our salvation. Let us come before him with thanksgiving and extol him with music and song. For the Lord is the great God, the great King above all gods. In his hand are the depths of the earth, and the mountain peaks belong to him. The sea is his, for he made it, and his hands formed the dry land… Declare his glory among the nations, his marvelous deeds among all peoples. For great is the Lord and most worthy of praise; he is to be feared above all gods. For the gods of the nations are idols, but the Lord made the heavens…He will judge the world in righteousness and the peoples in truth. (from Psalm 95-96)